Custom Search
Custom Search

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

Group Dynamics


Definition of Group
  • Group is defined as minimum two or more than two individuals who come together to complete particular task(s) usually towards achievement of goal(s).
  • These individuals normally related to each other by some organizational or social relationships.
  • The group may be of two types:
    - informal group and
    - formal groups
  • The behavior of individuals in a group may get modified to certain extent as compared their behavior when they are independent of the group. This is due to the interactions between the members of the group and their influence on each other.
Definition of Group Dynamics
  • Group dynamics is the study of groups.
  • It is an important subject of organizational behavior (OB), particularly for the organizational groups.
  • It studies group’s
    - Formation
    - Structure
    - Interaction and behavior
    - Process.
  • Study of the group processes forms the most important core subject of the studies while looking at the group functioning.
  • Due to this reason, many a time, people understand group dynamics and group process as one and the same.
Formation of Groups

Why Are Groups Formed?
  • Individuals sharing common sentiments, purpose and activities start interacting and form a group. 
  • When individuals perceive that they can expect beneficial exchanges explicitly or implicitly by forming the group, they do so and become part of the group.
  • When individuals believe that they can get an identity, belongingness, self-esteem or prestige by affiliating to a particular or significant or prominent group, they do so.
How Groups Get Formed and Develop?

Bruce Tuckman gave a five stage framework for formation and development of groups in 1960s. These five stages are given below:

1. Forming:
  • Due to any one of the reasons enunciated earlier, group gets formed.
  • Normally, the group gets formed with an incomplete idea of its goals or purposes. So, at the beginning of formation, there is some confusion and uncertainty.
  • Leadership of the group and the roles and tasks to be undertaken by the group do not emerge clearly. Thus, forming is an induction process through which members get to know each other and share expectations from the group.
  • Members gradually learn the purpose of the group and the guidelines to be followed.
  • Forming stage should not be rushed because trust and openness have yet to develop. These feelings strengthen in later stages of development.
2. Storming:
  • In this stage, the group is likely to experience the highest level of disagreement and conflict as members may voice concerns and criticism.
  • Members often question and challenge group goals.
  • They also struggle for power or leadership.
  • If members can ultimately achieve understanding and cohesiveness through collaboration and resolution, the group may continue as a group. Otherwise, the group may disband. However, if it still continues, it may remain ineffective and may not make progress to the subsequent stages.
3. Norming:
  • In this stage, the members start recognizing their individual differences and also their shared expectations.
  • Members may begin to develop a feeling of group identity and group harmony.
  • Cooperative efforts may begin.
  • Roles and responsibilities among members may get decided.
  • They may also decide on how to evaluate progress of the group.
4. Performing:
  • At performing stage, group might have achieved maturity and there will be greater degree of harmony among its members.
  • There is more mutual acceptance among the members now.
  • Conflict can be managed and resolved more amicably through collaborative processes.
  • Decisions making takes place more on rational basis aimed at achieving goals rather than highlighting the emotional issues.
5. Adjourning:
  • All groups do not experience this stage at all. Many groups remain permanent.
  • Some groups that complete their tasks and goals may decide on disbanding the group.
  • This stage is characterized by the feelings of sadness normally associated with closure of any group and separation of the members.
Types of Leadership Required in First Four Stages of Group Formation/Development

1. Tell:
  • It is the type of leadership required in the first stage called forming
  • Facilitate members; introduction with each other each other and tell the individual contribution to the task expected from them.
  • Provide a sense of purpose and clarify limits, deadlines and constraints.
  • Assess the skills and try to identify group roles
  • Begin to anticipate likely blocks and barriers to progress
2. Sell:
  • It is the type of leadership required in the second stage called storming
  • Its a delicate role
  • Continue to provide direction
  • Encourage building of trust and openness
  • Manage conflicts positively to arrive at look for a common platform
  • Be prepared to mediate and determine solutions even if they might not be popular with everyone
3. Consult:
  • It is the type of leadership required in the third stage called norming
  • Less directive and more supportive
  • Maintain openness and trust
  • Challenge the group if it starts to become complacent
  • Celebrate individual and group successes
  • Encourage regular reviews to ensure group's progress
4. Participate:
  • It is the type of leadership required in the fourth stage called performing
  • Lead from behind
  • Ensure that the group has required resources and support
  • Represent the group to the wider organization
  • Encourage regular evaluation to avoid complacency
  • Develop the skills
Group Process

Given below are the major factors or elements of group process:
  • Extent of task focus (giving information, seeking information, summarizing, getting on etc) and extent of social focus (encouraging, harmonizing, drawing in, mirroring, pleasing, entertaining etc)
  • Characteristics of communication, coordination, cooperation, support and collaboration
  • Patterns of self-oriented behavior (silence, hurt feeling, withdrawal, tension, anxiety etc)
  • Mix of influencing, convincing, dictating, bribing, cajoling, flattery etc
  • Roles
  • Relationships
  • Patterns of dominance and submission
  • Conflict management and conflict resolution
  • Level of group effectiveness
  • Team building and synergy
Types of Groups
  • Informal groups
  • Formal
Informal Groups

These groups may get formed within an organization or outside an organization. They do not necessarily follow the rules and guidelines of the organization. They informally follow the guidelines of the informal group. These groups are called interest groups, friendship groups, reference groups etc. Given below are a few examples of informal groups:
  • Employees meet near water cooler and gossip
  • Five secretaries from marketing department meet once a month for lunch to discuss mutual concerns and to seek relief from tedious aspects of their job
  • Four computer programmers form a jogging club that meets three days per week to run five miles after office hours
  • All employees of a section meet and discuss how to improve and beautify office layouts
  • Seven workers of a production shop floor meet once a week to solve their technical problems
Formal Groups

These groups are formally created in an organization and follow the rules and guidelines prescribed by the organization. These are:

1. Command groups
They are explained by a formal organization structure and depicted on the organizational chart. A company’s organization network starting with the chairman of board of directors through its various levels of managers right down to the workers is a typical command group example.

2. Task groups or task forces
People working together to achieve a common task form a task group or a task force. Members are grouped together either from the same department or cross-functionally to complete some specified goals on a timeline. These task forces are appointed for a specified periods and disbanded after the goals are achieved.

3. Functional groups
Functional group is created to carry out specific functions in an organization. These are normally on-going departments of an organization and are permanent till re-structuring of organization is undertaken.

Methods of Arriving at Decisions in Group
  • Lack of response
    (Plop)
  • Authority rule
    (Mine is right or might is right)
  • Minority rule
    (Silence means consent)
  • Majority rule
    (Collection - win - lose competition)
  • Consensus
    (Near total agreement)
  • Unanimity
    (Total agreement)
Books Authored by Shyam Bhatawdekar and Dr Kalpana Bhatawdekar (eBooks and printed books available online from  Amazon)

Management, Business, Self-help & Personality Development Books

1. HSoftware (Human Software) (The Only Key to Higher Effectiveness)
2. Sensitive Stories of Corporate World (Management Case Studies)
3. Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
4. Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers (Volume 2)
5. Classic Team Building Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
6. 101 Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
7. Stress? No Way!! (Handbook on Stress Management)
8. HSoftware (Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Effectiveness Model)
9. Competency Management (Competency Matrix and Competencies)
10. Soft Skills You Can’t Do Without (Goal Setting, Time Management, Assertiveness and Anger Management)
11. Essentials of Work Study (Method Study and Work Measurement)
12. Essentials of Time Management (Taking Control of Your Life)
13. Essentials of 5S Housekeeping
14. Essentials of Quality Circles
15. Essentials of Goal Setting
16. Essentials of Anger Management
17. Essentials of Assertive Behavior
18. Essentials of Performance Management & Performance Appraisal
19. Health Essentials (Health Is Wealth)
20. The Romance of Intimacy (How to Enhance Intimacy in a Relationship?)

Novels, Stories, Biographies and Travelogues

21. The Peace Crusaders (Novel: how the peace crusaders established permanent peace on a war strewn planet?)
22. Love Knows No Bounds (Novel: a refreshingly different love story. Also available with the title “Good People”)
23. Funny (and Not So Funny) Short Stories
24. Stories Children Will Love (Volume 1: Bhanu-Shanu-Kaju-Biju and Dholu Ram Gadbad Singh)
25. My Father (Biography)
26. Travelogue: Scandinavia, Russia

For More Guidance, Assistance,, training and Consultation

Contact: prodcons@prodcons.com

Other Topics of Interest

All Management Topics (General Management, Marketing and Sales, Service, Operations/Manufacturing, Quality, Maintenance, Human Resources, Finance and Accounts, Information Technology, Life Management)

The topics are listed in alphabetic order:

(Home Pages for All the Management Topicshttp://management-universe.blogspot.com/ and http://management-universe-enotes.blogspot.com/
(
Alphabetic List of All Management Topicshttp://management-enotes.blogspot.com/
(
Home Page for Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekarhttp://writings-of-shyam.blogspot.com/
(5S Housekeeping) http://5s-housekeeping.blogspot.com/
(Activity Based Costing- ABC) http://activitybased-costing.blogspot.com/
(Advertising) http://advertising-mass-communication.blogspot.com/
(Anger Management) http://controlling-anger.blogspot.com/
(Assertiveness) http://assertiveness-skill.blogspot.com/
(A to Z of Management Systems) http://a-z-management-systems.blogspot.com/
(A to Z of Quality Techniques) http://a-z-quality-techniques.blogspot.com/
(Balanced Scorecard) http://balanced-scorecard-system.blogspot.com/
(Behavioral Safety) http://behavioral-safety.blogspot.com/
(Benchmarking) http://benchmarking-system.blogspot.com/
(Books- Best Management Books) http://best-management-books.blogspot.com/
(Boundaryless) http://shyambhatawdekar.blogspot.com/
(Business Ethics and Ethics in Management) http://business-management-ethics.blogspot.com/
(Business Process Reengineering- BPR) http://business-process-reengineering-bpr.blogspot.com/
(Career Planning within Organizations) http://organizational-career-planning.blogspot.com/
(Case Method) http://case-method.blogspot.com/
(CEO Roles, Qualities and Competencies) http://ceo-qualities.blogspot.com/
(Change Management) http://manage-change.blogspot.com/
(Coaching) http://coaching-skill.blogspot.com/
(Communication) http://communication-for-business.blogspot.com/
(Competencies- Life Management) http://shyam-bhatawdekar.blogspot.com/
(Competency Matrix) http://competency-matrix.blogspot.com/
(Conflict Management) http://manage-conflict.blogspot.com/
(Corporate Governance) http://corporate-governance-policy.blogspot.com/
(Cost Management) http://cost-management-control.blogspot.com/
(Cost of Quality- COQ) http://cost-of-quality.blogspot.com/
(Counseling at Workplace)http://counseling-skill.blogspot.com/
(Creativity and Innovation) http://creativity-management.blogspot.com/
(Critical Thinking skills) http://critical-thinking-skills.blogspot.com/
(Cross Cultural Etiquette and Manners) http://cross-cultural-etiquette.blogspot.com/
(Customer Orientation) http://customer-orientation.blogspot.com/
(Customer Relationship management- CRM) http://customer-relationship-crm.blogspot.com/
(Daily Management) http://daily-management.blogspot.com/
(Decision Making) http://decision-making-function.blogspot.com/
(Delegation) http://delegation-skill.blogspot.com/
(Design for Manufacture) http://design-for-manufacture.blogspot.com/
(Dining Etiquette and Table Manners) http://dining-manners.blogspot.com/
(Discipline at Work) http://discipline-at-work.blogspot.com/
(Dream Exotic) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/my-exotic-dream/6txz9nck6g3/8#
(Effectiveness and Efficiency) http://effectiveness-efficiency.blogspot.com/
(Effectiveness Management: 
HSoftwarehttp://humansoftware.blogspot.com/
(Email Etiquette) http://email-etiquette-manners.blogspot.com/
(Emotional Intelligence) http://emotional-quotient-intelligence.blogspot.com/
(Empowerment) http://employee-empowerment.blogspot.com/
(Enterprise Resource Planning- ERP) http://erp-management.blogspot.com/
(Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur) http://entrepreneurship-entrepreneur.blogspot.com/
(Executive Etiquette and Manners) http://executive-manners.blogspot.com/
(Exit Interview) http://exit-interview.blogspot.com/
(Financial Ratios and Financial Ratio Analysis) http://financial-ratios.blogspot.com/
(Financial Services) http://finance-related-services.blogspot.com/
(Functions of Management) http://functions-of-management.blogspot.com/
(Gemba Kaizen) http://gemba-kaizen-improvement.blogspot.com/
(Genuine Professional) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/the-genuine-professional/6txz9nck6g3/10#
(Global Mindset) http://global-mindset.blogspot.com/
(Goal/Target Setting) http://goal-target-setting.blogspot.com/
(Group Discussion) http://group-discussion-gd.blogspot.com/
(Group Dynamics) http://group-dynamics-process.blogspot.com/
(How to Be a Good Boss) http://good-boss.blogspot.com/
(How to Get Promoted) http://get-promoted.blogspot.com/
(How to save Money) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/how-to-save-money/6txz9nck6g3/11#
(HR Dynamics) http://hrm-dynamics.blogspot.com/
(HR Strategies and Functions) http://strategic-functions-hrm.blogspot.com/
(Human Capital Architecture) http://human-capital-architecture.blogspot.com/
(Human Relations) http://human-relations-aspect.blogspot.com/
(Human Resource Planning) http://human-resource-planning.blogspot.com/
(Human Software- 
HSoftwarehttp://human-software-hsoftware.blogspot.com/
(Interpersonal Relations) http://interpersonal-relations.blogspot.com/
(Interview Skills) http://interviewing-skill.blogspot.com/
(Interview Preparation for Job Seekers) http://interview-preparation-jobs.blogspot.com/
(Interview Questions) http://interview-question-bank.blogspot.com/
(Just in Time Management- JIT) http://just-in-time-management.blogspot.com/
(Kaizen) http://kaizen-improvement.blogspot.com/
(Knowledge Management) http://knowledge-management-initiative.blogspot.com/
(Lead Time Management) http://lead-time-management.blogspot.com/
(Leadership) http://lead-max.blogspot.com/
(Lean Enterprise) http://lean-organization.blogspot.com/
(Learning Organization) http://learning-organization-profile.blogspot.com/
(Life Management- Latest HSoftware model) http://life-effectiveness.blogspot.in/
(Life Management: Competencies) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/competency-matrix/6txz9nck6g3/4#
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: 
HSoftwarehttp://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/management-in-life-profession-family/6txz9nck6g3/3#
(Life Management: I Am Liberated) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/i-am-liberated/6txz9nck6g3/6#
(Life Positions and OKness) http://life-positions.blogspot.com/
(Life Skills) http://life-skills-competencies.blogspot.com/
(Listening) http://listen-skills.blogspot.com/
(Management Anecdotes) http://management-anecdotes.blogspot.com/
(Management Book- Best Books) http://best-management-books.blogspot.com/
(Management Information System- MIS) http://management-information-system-mis.blogspot.com/
(Management in Life, Profession, Family and Society) http://life-effectiveness.blogspot.in/
(Managing/conducting Meetings) http://managing-meetings.blogspot.com/
(Marginal Utility) http://marginal-utility-concept.blogspot.com/
(Marketing Management Overview) http://marketing-management-overview.blogspot.com/
(Marketing Orientation) http://marketing-orientation.blogspot.com/
(Marketing Management Tasks) http://marketing-management-tasks.blogspot.com/
(Market research) http://market-research-function.blogspot.com/
(Market Segmentation) http://market-segment.blogspot.com/
(Mentoring) http://mentor-mentorship.blogspot.com/
(Motivation) http://motivation-people.blogspot.com/
(Negotiation Skills) http://negotiating-skills.blogspot.com/
(Negotiation Tactics) http://negotiation-tactics.blogspot.com/
(Objection Handling) http://objection-handling.blogspot.com/
(Organization Development- OD) http://organization-development-od.blogspot.com/
(Organizational Culture) http://organizational-culture-values.blogspot.com/
(Out of Box Ideas) http://wow-idea.blogspot.com/
(Ownership on Job) http://job-ownership.blogspot.com/
(Paradigm and Paradigm Shift) http://paradigm-mindset.blogspot.com/
(Performance Management and Appraisal) http://performance-appraisal-management.blogspot.com/
(Personality) http://human-personality.blogspot.com/
(Positive Strokes) http://positive-strokes.blogspot.com/
(Presentation Skills) http://presentation-effectiveness.blogspot.com/
(Problem Solving) http://problem-solving-skill.blogspot.com/
(Profit Improvement) http://profit-improvement.blogspot.com/
(Project Management) http://management-of-project.blogspot.com/
(Quality Circles History) http://quality-circles-history.blogspot.com/
(Quality Circles) http://quality-circles.blogspot.com/
(Quality Function Deployment- QFD and House of Quality) http://quality-function-deployment.blogspot.com/
(Quality Gurus) http://quality-gurus.blogspot.com/
(Recession) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/recession/6txz9nck6g3/7#
(Recession Management) http://recession-management.blogspot.com/
(Recruitment and Selection) http://recruitment-selection.blogspot.com/
(Research Methodology) http://research-work-methodology.blogspot.com/
(Safety and Health Management) http://safety-health-management.blogspot.com/
(Sales/Selling Process) http://selling-process.blogspot.com/
(Sales Promotion) http://sales-promotion.blogspot.com/
(Self development) http://managing-self.blogspot.com/
(Self-confidence) http://self-confidence-improvement.blogspot.com/
(Six Sigma) http://six-sigma-system.blogspot.com/
(Six Thinking Hats) http://six-thinking-hats.blogspot.com/
(Soft Skills) http://soft-skills-competencies.blogspot.com/
(Spiritual Quotient/Intelligence) http://spiritual-quotient.blogspot.com/
(Strategic Management) http://strategic-managing.blogspot.com/
(Stress Management) http://management-of-stress.blogspot.com/
(Stress Management) http://managing-stress-strain.blogspot.com/
(Success) http://success-achievement.blogspot.com/
(Supply Chain Management) http://manage-supply-chain.blogspot.com/
(Supply and Demand) http://supply-demand-laws.blogspot.com/
(Talent Management) http://managing-talent.blogspot.com/
(Team Building) http://team-building-working.blogspot.com/
(Telephone Etiquette) http://telephone-etiquette.blogspot.com/
(Three Sixty Degrees Appraisal System) http://three-sixty-degrees-feedback.blogspot.com/
(Time Management) http://time-life-management.blogspot.com/
(Total Productive Maintenance- TPM) http://total-productive-maintenance.blogspot.com/
(Total Quality Management- TQM) http://total-quality-concept.blogspot.com/
(Training and Development) http://training-function.blogspot.com/
(Trainers’ Qualities) http://trainers-qualities.blogspot.com/
(Transaction Analysis- TA) http://transaction-analysis.blogspot.com/
(TRIZ- Inventive Problem Solving) http://triz-problem-solving.blogspot.com/
(Value Engineering/Analysis) http://value-engineering-analysis.blogspot.com/
(Winners and Losers) http://winners-losers.blogspot.com/
(World Class Manufacturing) http://world-class-manufacturing.blogspot.com/
(Written Communication) http://written-communication.blogspot.com/
(Zero Based Budgeting) http://zero-based-budgeting.blogspot.com/

Counseling: General and Psychological
(Anger Management) http://controlling-anger.blogspot.com/
(Children’s Behavior Problems) http://child-behavior-problems.blogspot.com/
(Cholesterol Control) http://controlling-cholesterol.blogspot.com/
(Counseling: Psychological) http://counselingfamily.blogspot.com/
(Counseling: Psychological) http://counseling-family.blogspot.com/
(Cross Cultural Etiquette) http://cross-cultural-etiquette.blogspot.com/
(Emotions) http://emotion-feeling.blogspot.com/
(Executive Etiquette and Manners) http://executive-manners.blogspot.com/
(Exercises) http://exercises-plan.blogspot.com/
(Family Counseling) http://family-harmony.blogspot.com/
(Health: Homeopathy) http://homeopathy-medicines.blogspot.com/
(LifeManagement: Competencies) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/competency-matrix/6txz9nck6g3/4#
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/management-in-life-profession-family/6txz9nck6g3/3#
(Life management: I Am Liberated) http://knol.google.com/k/shyam-bhatawdekar/i-am-liberated/6txz9nck6g3/6#view
(Marriage Counseling) http://marriage-counsel.blogspot.com/
(Ownership on Job) http://job-ownership.blogspot.com/
(Parental Responsibilities) http://parental-responsibilities.blogspot.com/
(Personality) http://human-personality.blogspot.com/
(Qualities of Spouse) http://spouse-qualities.blogspot.com/
(Quit Smoking) http://quit-smoking-plan.blogspot.com/
(Self Development) http://managing-self.blogspot.com/
(Self-confidence) http://self-confidence-improvement.blogspot.com/
(Stress Management) http://managing-stress-strain.blogspot.com/
(Stress Management) http://management-of-stress.blogspot.com/
(Swine Flu and Its Prevention) http://swine-flu-precaution.blogspot.com/
(Telephone Etiquette) http://telephone-etiquette.blogspot.com/
(Walking) http://walking-plan.blogspot.com/
(Winners and Losers) http://winners-losers.blogspot.com/




General Knowledge and Out of Box Ideas
(General Knowledge- GK) http://general-knowledge-gk.blogspot.com/
(General Knowledge- Top 5/Top 10) http://top-five-everything.blogspot.com/
(Out of Box Ideas) http://wow-idea.blogspot.com/

Monday, December 24, 2012

Team Management: Every Single Key Matters

Every Sigle Member of the Team Matters


Xvxn though this kxyboard is old it works wxll xxcxpt for onx kxy. I havx wishxd many timxs that it workxd pxrfxctly. It is trux that thxrx arx forty onx kxys that function wxll xnough. But just onx kxy not working makxs thx diffxrxncx.
Somxtimxs an organization is likx this kxyboard- all thx pxoplx but onx arx working propxrly. You may say to yoursxlf, “Wxll, only onx won’t makx or brxak a projxct.” But it doxs makx a diffxrxncx. Any projxct to bx xffxctivx nxxds thx participation of xvxry mxmbxr.
So thx nxxt timx you think you arx “only onx” and that your xfforts arxn’t nxxdxd, rxmxmbxr this kxyboard and say to yoursxlf, “I am an important pxrson in thx organization and I am nxxdxd vxry much.”

Books Authored by Shyam Bhatawdekar and Dr Kalpana Bhatawdekar (eBooks and printed books available online from  Amazon)

Management, Business, Self-help & Personality Development Books

1. HSoftware (Human Software) (The Only Key to Higher Effectiveness)
2. Sensitive Stories of Corporate World (Management Case Studies)
3. Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
4. Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers (Volume 2)
5. Classic Team Building Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
6. 101 Classic Management Games, Exercises, Energizers and Icebreakers
7. Stress? No Way!! (Handbook on Stress Management)
8. HSoftware (Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Effectiveness Model)
9. Competency Management (Competency Matrix and Competencies)
10. Soft Skills You Can’t Do Without (Goal Setting, Time Management, Assertiveness and Anger Management)
11. Essentials of Work Study (Method Study and Work Measurement)
12. Essentials of Time Management (Taking Control of Your Life)
13. Essentials of 5S Housekeeping
14. Essentials of Quality Circles
15. Essentials of Goal Setting
16. Essentials of Anger Management
17. Essentials of Assertive Behavior
18. Essentials of Performance Management & Performance Appraisal
19. Health Essentials (Health Is Wealth)
20. The Romance of Intimacy (How to Enhance Intimacy in a Relationship?)

Novels, Stories, Biographies and Travelogues

21. The Peace Crusaders (Novel: how the peace crusaders established permanent peace on a war strewn planet?)
22. Love Knows No Bounds (Novel: a refreshingly different love story. Also available with the title “Good People”)
23. Funny (and Not So Funny) Short Stories
24. Stories Children Will Love (Volume 1: Bhanu-Shanu-Kaju-Biju and Dholu Ram Gadbad Singh)
25. My Father (Biography)
26. Travelogue: Scandinavia, Russia